How to format your paper using APA Guidelines
For more information, visit the Purdue Online Writing Lab.
Additional help can be found below or at APA Style Help
A DOI (Digitial Object Identifier) is a unique code for an electronic document. The DOI will never change, even even if the URL changes.
Some citation formats require the DOI if there is one.
To look for a document's DOI: crossref.org.
To find a document using the DOI: click on the DOI or go to doi®.
Nursing, education, and many of the sciences use APA citation style.
The final authority for APA is the American Psychological Association, specifically the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., 2010). The final authority for the bibliographic form used in your paper is your professor.
Full-text journal article from a database:
Day, K. (2001). Constructing masculinity and women's fear in public space in Irvine,
California. Gender Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 8(2), 109-128.
Kim, E., Newton, F. B., Downey, R. G., & Benton, S. L. (2010). Personal factors
impacting college student success: Constructing college learning effectiveness
inventory. College Student Journal, 44(1), 112-125. Retrieved from
Hager, M. H. (2007). Therapeutic diet order writing: Current issues. Topics in
Clinical Nutrition, 22(1), 28-36. Retrieved from CINAHL database.
Pharmacy contract to offer seasonal flu jabs renewed. (2016). Practice Nurse,
46(6), 8. Retrieved from CINAHL database.
Magazines, newsletters, and newspapers:
Latinos in school: Why do many fail? (1983, August 1). Los Angeles Times, p.
A3. Los Angeles, CA.
Managing stress: A guide for college students. (2010, July 22). Retrieved from
University of Georgia, University Health Center. http://www.uhs.uga.edu/stress/
Coltrane, S. (1998). Gender and families. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
Book with more than one author:
Goulding, M., & Mahar, D. (1996). Floods of fortune: Ecology and economy along the
Amazon. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Egan, S. E., & Perry, D. G. (2001). Gender identity: A multidimensional analysis
with implications for psychosocial adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 37(4),
Chapter in a book:
Kampwirth, K. (2010). Gender politics in Nicaragua: Feminism, antifeminism, and
the return of Daniel Ortega. In E. Maier & N. Lebon (Eds.), Women's activism
in Latin America and the Caribbean: Engendering social justice, democratizing
citizenship (pp. 111-126). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Essay in a multivolume work (each volume with a unique title):
Bloom, L. Z. (1985). Maya Angelou. In T. M. Davis & T. Harris (Eds.), Dictionary
of literary biography: Vol 38 Afro-American writers after 1955: Dramatists and
prose writers. Detroit, MI: Gale.
Article in a reference work:
Lieberman, L. S. (2003). Diabetes. In K. Kiple (Ed.), The Cambridge Historical
Dictionary of Disease. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from
Reference entries are not needed for the Bible and other major classical works (APA Publication Manual, 2010).
However, your professor may require full publication information; if you are not sure, ask him or her.
Lazarus, M., & Wunderlich, R. (Producers). (2000). Beyond killing us softly:
The strength to resist : The impact of media images on women and girls.
[Videotape]. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Documentary Films.
From Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed, 2010:
In-text citations, p. 175:
"When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations."
Reference list, p. 184:
"Invert all authors' names; give surnames and initials for up to and including seven authors (e.g. Author, A. A., Author, B., B., & Author, C., C.). When authors number eight or more, include the first six authors' names, then insert three ellipsis points, and add the last author's name."