How to format your paper using APA Guidelines
Additional help can be found below or at APA Style Help
A DOI (Digitial Object Identifier) is a unique code for an electronic document. The DOI will never change, even even if the URL changes.
Some citation formats require the DOI if there is one.
To look for a document's DOI: crossref.org.
To find a document using the DOI: click on the DOI or go to doi®.
Nursing, education, and many of the sciences use APA citation style.
The final authority for APA is the American Psychological Association, specifically the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., 2020). The final authority for the bibliographic form used in your paper is your professor.
Full-text journal article from a database:
Oleschuk, M. (2019). Gender, cultural schemas, and learning to cook. Gender & Society,
33(4), 607–628. https://doi-org/10.1177/0891243219839669
Epler-Ruths, C. M., McDonald, S., Pallant, A., & Lee, H. S. (2020). Focus on the notice:
Evidence of spatial skills’ effect on middle school learning from a computer simulation.
Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 5(1), 1-16.
Yu, D. T., & van Tubergen, A. (2020). Treatment of axial spondyloarthritis (ankylosing
spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis) in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved
December 18, 2020 from
Magazines, newsletters, and newspapers:
Latinos in school: Why do many fail? (1983, August 1). Los Angeles Times, A3.
Sanger, D. E., & Perlroth, N. (2020, December 17). More hacking attacks found as
officials warn of ‘grave risk’ to U.S. Government. The New York Times.
Managing stress: A guide for college students. (2010, July 22). Retrieved from
University of Georgia, University Health Center. http://www.uhs.uga.edu/stress/
Gladwell, M. (2019). Talking to strangers: What we should know about the people we
don't know. Little, Brown and Company.
Book with more than one author:
Fung, J., Mayer, E., & Ramos, M. (2020). Life in the fasting lane: How to make
intermittent fasting a lifestyle--and reap the benefits of weight loss and better health. Harper Wave.
Egan, S. E., & Perry, D. G. (2001). Gender identity: A multidimensional analysis
with implications for psychosocial adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 37(4),
Chapter in a book:
Nguyen, V. T. (2020). Stromberg v. California (1931). In M. Chabon & A. Waldman (Eds.),
Fight of the century: Writers reflect on 100 years of landmark ACLU cases (pp. 1–5).
Avid Reader Press.
Essay in a multivolume work (each volume with a unique title):
Bloom, L. Z. (1985). Maya Angelou. In T. M. Davis & T. Harris (Eds.), Dictionary
of literary biography: Vol 38 Afro-American writers after 1955: Dramatists and
prose writers. Gale.
Article in a reference work:
Lieberman, L. S. (2003). Diabetes. In K. Kiple (Ed.), The Cambridge Historical
Dictionary of Disease. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved December 21, 2020, from
All religious works (including the Bible) published as books follow the book reference format. Religious works published as websites follow the webpage reference format. Do not include a author, and use the year of the publication of the Bible translation you are using.
The Holy Bible (New Revised Standard Version). (1989). Oxford University Press.
Lazarus, M., & Wunderlich, R. (Producers). (2000). Beyond killing us softly:
The strength to resist: The impact of media images on women and girls.
[Video]. Cambridge Documentary Films.
The University of Chicago. (2020, December 8). The Himalayas: An ecological
battle [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/C3T8dJwJSbs
From Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed, 2020:
When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations.
List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author's name (do not place an ampersand before it). There should be no more than twenty names in the citation in total. (e.g. Author, A. A., Author, B., B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. O., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., ... Author, T. T.).