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Information in research papers and writing borrowed from other sources must be documented. This includes quotations, summaries, paraphrases, or any facts or ideas that are not common knowledge.

Some disciplines have their own styles for documenting sources. Check your course syllabus, assignment, or with your professor about which style to use.

Examples of styles used at Goshen College:

  • APA American Psychological Association- education, nursing, psychology, sciences
  • ASA American Sociological Association - sociology
  • Chicago - history, humanities, religion
  • MLA Modern Language Association - English, humanities
  • SBL Society of Biblical Literature - Bible, religion, philosophy
  • Turabian - history; humanities; religion; peace, justice & conflict studies; social and natural sciences


A DOI (Digitial Object Identifier) is a unique code for an electronic document. The DOI will never change, even even if the URL changes. 

Some citation formats require the DOI if there is one.

To look for a document's DOI:

To find a document using the DOI: click on the DOI or go to doi®.


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