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SOC 391: Methods of Social Research: Social Science Literature Reviews: ASA


While some article databases offer ASA formatting for citations, these are NOT ALWAYS ACCURATE OR COMPLETE!

If you use an online tools to generate citations, please double check their accuracy against the "ASA Style Guide" or other sources linked from this guide.

Basic ASA Citations

Type of Citation First Citation in Text Subsequent Citations in Text Parenthetical Format, First Citation in Text Parenthetical Format, Subsequent Citations in Text
One work by one author Walker (2007) Walker (2007) (Walker 2007) (Walker 2007)
One work by two authors Walker and Allen (2004) Walker and Allen (2004) (Walker and Allen 2004) (Walker and Allen 2004)
One work by three authors Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999) Bradley et al. (1999) (Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo 1999) (Bradley et al. 1999)
One work by four or more authors Wasserstein et al. (2005) Wasserstein et al. (2005) (Wasserstein et al. 2005) (Wasserstein et al. 2005)
Groups as authors (readily identified through abbreviation) NIMH (2003) NIMH (2003) (NIMH 2003) (NIMH 2003)
Groups as authors (no abbreviation) University of Pittsburgh (2005) University of Pittsburgh (2005) (University of Pittsburgh 2005) (University of Pittsburgh 2005)

Source: American Sociological Association. 2010. Style Guide. Washington, D.C.: American Sociological Association.

Direct Quotations & Paraphrasing in ASA

ASA style follows the author-date format used by The Chicago Manual of Style for in-text citations. After a quotation or reference, add parentheses containing the author's last name and the year of publication of the work being cited. The page number may also be noted following a colon.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss 2007:7).

If you use more than one work by the same author published in the same year, use the letters a, b, etc., after the year.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss 2007a:7).

If a reference list includes more than one author with the same last name, add the first initials to in-text citations.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (D. Seuss 2007:7).

If two or more authors wrote the work, see the "Basic ASA Citations" table below.

If using the author's name in your text, do not include it in the parentheses.

Example: In his scholarly study, Dr. Seuss (2007) observed that "the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog."

If no author name is available, use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use quotation marks around titles of articles or web pages and italicize titles of books, periodicals, or reports. Treat in-text citations to legal materials such as court cases, statutes, and legislation the same as works with no author.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Fox in Socks 2007:12).

For additional examples, see pages 43-45 in the ASA's Style Guide (2010).

Journal Articles in ASA Style

Periodical: General

Author1 (last name first), Author2 (last name last), and Author 3. Year of publication. "Article title." Journal Title Vol#(iss#):Page#.

Journal Article with One Author

Campbell, Mary E. 2009. "Multiracial Groups and Educational Inequality: A Rainbow Or a Divide?" Social Problems 56(3):425-446.

Journal Article with Two Authors

Mouw, Ted and Arne L. Kalleberg. 2010. "Occupations and the Structure of Wage Inequality in the United States, 1980s to 2000s." American Sociological Review 75(3):402-431.

Journal Article with Three or More Authors

Moller, Stephanie, Arthur S. Alderson, and Francois Nielsen. 2009. "Changing Patterns of Income Inequality in U.S. Counties, 1970-2000." American Journal of Sociology 114(4):1037-1101.

Magazine and Newspaper Articles

Duke, Lynne. 1994. "Confronting Violence: African American Conferees Look Inward." Washington Post, January 8, pp. A1, A10.

Journal Article from an Online Resource with Page Numbers

Kramer, Lisa A. and Steph Lambert. 2001. "Sex-Linked Bias in Chances of being Promoted to Supervisor." Sociological Perspectives 44(1):111-127.

Journal Article from an Online Resource without Page Numbers

Lesser, Lawrence M. 2007. "Critical Values and Transforming Data: Teaching Statistics with Social Justice." Journal of Statistics Education 15(1). Retrieved January 25, 2011 (

Journal Article from an Online Resource with a Digital Object Identifer (DOI)

Pearson, A. Fiona. 2010. "Real Problems, Virtual Solutions: Engaging Students Online." Teaching Sociology 38(3):207-214. doi:10.1177/0092055X10370115.

For additional examples, see pages 46-51, 78, and 101-103 in the ASA's Style Guide (2010).

Books in ASA Style

Book: General

Author1 (last name first), Author2 (last name last), and Author 3. Year of publication. Book Title. Location of publisher, State or Country: Publisher's Name.

An ",eds." is appended to an author(s) entry to indicate the name(s) of editors.

If no date of publication is available, use N.d. in place of the date.

Book with One Author/Editor

Beeghley, Leonard. 2000. The structure of social stratification in the United States. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Book with Two Authors/Editors

Lareau, Annette and Dalton Conley, eds. 2008. Social class: how does it work? New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Book with Three or More Authors/Editors

Scott, Jacqueline, and Rosemary Crompton, and Clare Lyonette, eds. 2010. Gender inequalities in the 21st century: new barriers and continuing constraints. Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar.

Entire Book: Electronic Version

Feagin, Joe R. 2010. Racist America: Roots, Currentalities, and Future Reparations. New York: Taylor and Francis Routledge. Retrieved January 25, 2011 (

Chapter in a Book or Encyclopedia Entry.

Zambrana, Ruth E. and Victoria-Maria MacDonald. 2009. "Staggered Inequalities in Access to
Higher Education by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity." Pp. 73-100 in Emerging Intersections: Race, Class, and Gender in Theory, Policy, and Practice, edited by B.T. Dill and R.E. Zambrana. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

For additional examples, see pages 45-51, 77, 99-101, and 106 in the ASA's Style Guide (2010).

Websites and Audiovisual Sources in ASA Style

Website document retrieved from an institution at a known location.

American Sociological Association. 2006. "Status Committees." Washingon, D.C.: American Sociological Association. Retrieved July 10, 2010 (

Website document retrieved from an institution at an unknown location.

IBM. 2008. "2008 Annual Report." Retrieved January 25, 2011 (


American Sociological Association. 2004. Max Weber Visits America, 1904. DVD. Washington, D.C.: American Sociological Association.

For additional examples, see pages 79-82 in the ASA's Style Guide (2010).

The ASA Style Guide

Copies of this book, also referred to as the "ASA Style Guide," are located at the Reference Desk (Library main level) for in-library use only.

Helpful Resources on ASA Style

Additional information on ASA style may be found at these websites:


If you want to talk to a librarian about this course, you can:

  • chat with a librarian using the chat box or in the library, Monday-Friday 9a-5p, Sunday-Thursday 7p-10p or
  • email the instruction librarian for this course, Matilda Yoder.


A DOI (Digitial Object Identifier) is a unique code for an electronic document. The DOI will never change, even even if the URL changes. 

Some citation formats require the DOI if there is one.

To look for a document's DOI:

To find a document using the DOI: click on the DOI or go to doi®.


These ASA examples were originally created by Jon Ritterbush, Electronic Resources Librarian at University of Nebraska Kearney. Other users of LibGuides are welcome to use this Guide as a template and to make changes as necessary to fit their custom needs.